Ecuador History - History of Ecuador from Incas to Conquistadors to todays government

Ecuador Tours - Galapagos Islands travel and Amazon cruises:

Tours and travel to Ecuador and other South America countries, custom itineraries for groups and individuals, responsible tourism and soft adventures for all ages

Galapagos Islands Cruises and tours, yachts, expedition ships, hotels and dive resorts:

Tours and travel to the Galapagos Islands and Ecuador with an Ecotourism company, we are experts in leading expeditions to the Galapagos Islands with naturalist guides.

South America - Central American - Travel Directory

South and Central America travel directory and index of tours, hotels, cruises, transportation, vacation planners, trip guides, tour operators for organizing your travels to Latin America.

Galapagos Islands tour and cruises travel planner:

Galapagos Islands travel planner, description of the islands, tourist activities and sites, hotels, cruises and tours around the Enchanted Isles.

Voyagers

Amazon river cruises in Ecuador on board the Manatee Amazon Explorer:

Amazon riverboat eco tours to visit indigenous communities and tribes, birdwatching and adventure in company of naturalist guides..

Ecuador travel transportation and tour guides :

Find Ecuador vans for charter and guides for hire, custom tours for groups individuals, Color Bus Line is a supplier for many international wholesalers.

Galapagos Journey Fleet

Galapagos travel & luxury cruises:

We operate the brand new (July 2006) M/C Anahi Catamaran, this boat replaces one of the older boats of our Galapagos fleet, we have 20 years experience offering unique wilderness trips, our guides are certified by the Galapagos National Park and offer passionate onsight and classroom style lectures. The M/C Anahi will offer a new level of comfort and service in the Islands with our pampered adventures.

Ecuador Mainland Hotel, Lodges & Hacienda Listing and Reservation Center

Ecuador's major cities hotel directory and booking site. From five star international brands to local hacienda lodges, there is an option for every taste. By personally inspecting each hotel and having close ties with them, here you will find the best deals for your nights in mainland Ecuador.

Online Travel Guide for Ecuador Travel

Your complete guide to the country of the four worlds. Our consultants will happily assist you from accommodations to tours, transfers to meals, and everything in between to assure you have a memorable Ecuador travel experience!

Galapagos Travel Advisor

Complete Comprehensive Galapagos Islands Travel Adviser

Find all you need to plan the perfect Galapagos Islands getaway. Here you will find a list of must see attractions, accommodations in the archipelago's main islands, cruise tours and other alternatives. This travel advisor is an invaluable tool for anyone visiting the Enchanted Islands.

Cruise & Hotel Based Galapagos Island Tour Directory

The Galapagos Islands are pretty much in any travel lover's bucket list. They appeal to nature enthusiasts, geologist fans, bird watchers, divers and pretty much any other adventurer looking for something out of the ordinary. Here you will find tours and options that can fulfill any of these people's highest expectations.

Galapagos Islands Hotel Index and Booking Site

Traditionally, the Galapagos Islands have been explored onboard cruises. Today though, it is possible to enjoy the Island's many treasures by staying in one of the many accommodations present in the archipelago's main three main islands. One of these rooms, bungalows, suites or cabins will be the perfect complement to a day filled with exploration.

Ecuador History

Ecuador History

Introduction
The first phase Ecuador's history began somewhere between 15,000 and 20,000 BC with the rise of indigenous societies in what is now Ecuador. These peoples had developed social organizations with their own beliefs, rites, and ceremonies and an economy based primarily on hunting, gathering, and agriculture. Traces of their existence can be found in archaeological sites located all across Ecuador. This era, which can be divided into four periods (Paleo-Indian or Pre-ceramic, Formative, Regional Development, Integration, and Incan), lasted until the arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores in the XVI century.

Key Dates in Ecuador's History
Pre-Columbian Period
Dates Period/Major Events Other Important Developments
10000 - 3600 B.C. Pre-ceramic Period Human societies develop living on hunting, fishing, and gathering.
3600 - 1800 B. C. Early Formative Period Societies continue to develop, subsiding on hunting, fishing, and rudimentary agricultural production.
1800 - 1500 B. C. Mid Formative Period More extensive agricultural production begins to develop.
1500 - 500 B. C. Late Formative Period As agricultural pratices are refined and become more heavily relied upon, the economy shifts towards an agrarian model.
500 B.C. - 500 A.D. Regional Development Period Agriculture becomes increasingly important and urban development increases.
500 - 1500 A.D. Integration Period Agricultural continues to spread and become increasingly important. Society becomes more complex.

Inca Period
Dates Period/Major Events Other Important Developments
1450 Organization and expansion Tupac Yupanqui begins the conquest of the Andean.
1485 Tupac-Yupanqui dies. Huayna-Cápac is proclamed Inca.
1525 Huayna-Cápac dies. Tahuantinsuyo is divided between Atahualpa and Huáscar.

The Conquest
Dates Major Events Details & Other Developments
1534 Conquest of Quito Sebastián de Benalcázar begins the Conquest of Quito.
1563 Audiencia of Quito Felipe II issues a Cédula Real creating the Real Audiencia and Cancillería of San Francisco of Quito.

Independence
Dates Major Events Details & Other Developments
1809 - 1812 Revolution of Quito Independence was declared but not obtained.
1820 - 1822 Independence: final stage. The patriotic forces are finally victorious.
1822 Formation of Gran Colombia. Ecuador becomes part of Gran Colombia with the name Distrito del Sur.
1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia. The independent state called Ecuador is formed. Republican life begins in the country.

Ecuador's History chronogram
Organization of the Incas (1.000 AD)
The Central highlands of the Andes was the seat of the Inca empire. It stretched from the south of Colombia to the north of Chile, over an area of more than four thousand square kilometers, across a land known as Tahuantinsuyo. The Incas were thus made up of a vast population of dozens of different ethnic groups with their own languages, customs and economies based on cultivation of the land. In Ecuador, these people spread out along the Andes, occupying some coastal regions and exercising a significant influence on Quito.

Arrival of the Spanish and the end of Tahuantinsuyo (1532)
In 1532 the downfall of Tahuantinsuyo began with the imprisonment of Atahualpa. Heavy fighting took place between the Europeans and the Incas, who resisted the conquest. For the Spanish, America represented a land full of riches, taken in the name of the Crown. Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro were the main protagonist of the time and conquered the native people in a bloody manner. The Europeans used a variety of strategies, among which was indoctrination and the use of rival Indian chiefs.

The Audiencia of Quito in the Colony
The Real Audiencia de Quito was established in 1563, as an administrative area dependent on the Spanish Crown. It covered the area to the north as far as Pasto, Popayán, Cali, Buenaventura and Buga, currently in Colombia, and to Piura, in Peru, to the south. Its first President was the Spaniard Hernando de Santillán. From its beginning until the XVIII century, the Audiencia de Quito was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. It was then under orders of the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, which had its seat in Santa Fe, until, after the latter was suspended, it again became a dependency of the Viceroyalty of Peru. However, later, King Felipe V decided to return it to la Nueva Granada, after this Viceroyalty was reestablished. Judicially and socially,la Audiencia de Quito had to follow the Viceroyalty of which it was part.

Political and administrative situation at the end of the XVIII century
Lack of confidence was part of colonial life due to the ambiguous situation in which the Audiencia de Quito existed. The Marquis of Selva Alegre (1753) centralized the state and established a monopoly on alcohol and tobacco. For this reason the famous Rebellion of the Estancos took place , to which other native uprisings were added. Administrative reorganizations were made which allowed greater income for the state. At the end of the XVIII century Luis Francisco Héctor, Baron of Carondelet, occupied the Presidency. He gained more power for Quito such as control of the Superintendancy of the Real Hacienda and the creation of a Capitanía General.

Rupture with the Colony and Independence
Social decadence sped up in the second half of the XVIII century. Historians attribute various factors to the fall of the colonial system. One of them, the end of production of silver in Potosi. Textile making decreased significantly. The power of the private elite was also limited by reforms which were introduced. Independence came about between the end of the XVIII century and the early decades of the XIX century. This was caused by a number of factors, external and internal. One of them being the influence of the French Revolution in the region.

Gran Colombia
After Independence, the three most important cities, Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca, were incorporated into Gran Colombia in 1822, at different times. Bolívar assumed the Presidency of this new nation made up, in addition, of Venezuela and Nueva Granada. With the aim of administrative organization the territory was divided into the departments of Venezuela, Cundinamarca and Quito. But the integration of these peoples aroused resistance and problems due to personal interests and ambitions throughout the process, which contributed to its disintegration.

Formation of the Republican State
After the collapse of Gran Colombia, the Republic of Ecuador was created in 1830. Since them political conflict has characterized life in the Republic. The new State was unable to integrate the different regions. The mountain region and the coast developed in different ways. Also, autonomous local bodies formed which entered into conflict with the state and which, in addition, administered their own resources. Neither was there a unified currency, which seriously affected the existence of a central power.

Sources: Ecuador Ministry of Tourism vivecuador.com